First of all I can not take credit for the awesome metaphor of old wine in new bottles as a way to unpack educational change. It is a phrase I have been asked to reflect upon as part of my last (yippee, almost there) course for my MA degree in Language & Literacy Education. After tracing major developments in research and theory over the past one hundred years, Dr. Robert Tierney positions our discussion group to “explore the notion that these are not just old wine in new bottles.” Being the efficient learner that I must be balancing school, work and family, I am exploring this notion in the context of digital portfolios. As the Communicating Student Learning Helping Teacher in a district where portfolios may (emphasis on may as this is optional) be created on FreshGrade in lieu of traditional reporting methods, this is a significant topic for me.
I am choosing to share these thoughts on a blog rather than the private space of UBC connect because I believe the time for change is now and the only way to start (or keep the momentum going if you have already started) is to open the dialogue and share, share, share. I welcome and invite all thoughts, questions, concerns and suggestions. Learning is reciprocal and we are all on this journey together: parents, students, teachers and everyone else interested in relevant and effective education. Rather than debate the best option (there really is no one size fits all, so we can just stop trying) what if we start pulling together our collective understanding and paradigms to simply explore new possibilities with a growth mindset? What if we approach roadblocks and concerns with curiosity rather than fear, and allow teachers and students as learning partners, to choose a path that makes sense for their journey?
Okay so my thoughts on the wine. I love wine, like actual liquid wine, preferably red. Perhaps that is why this metaphor resonates with me but I also appreciate the complexity of this simple phrase. Are digital portfolios just old wine in new bottles or are digital portfolios new wine in old bottles? A subtle difference with the exclusion of the word ‘just.’ See how beautifully dynamic language is and how personal the event of reading/meaning-making is? For some “old wine in new bottles” can be seen as “just old wine,” a negative or criticism of recycling old ideas. For others, and this is where I land, wine is good because of the wine, not the bottle. In turn, bad wine is bad wine even in a shiny new bottle with a fantastic label. You know how frustrating it is when you splurge on that expensive bottle with the brilliant label only to find it tastes the same as your favourite bottle for half the price? Frustrating, waste of time searching for something new and better and waste of money.
Something new and better or the latest buzz word in education: innovation. Are digital portfolios innovative? Yes and no. The tool, as in the actual technology that allows teachers and students to capture video and picture evidence in the learning moment, communicate simultaneously with parents in an online space and collaborate with all stakeholders to document personalized, evidence based learning maps, yes. I believe the technology in this case allows for new ways to capture and communicate learning. In my experience using FreshGrade it was a much better way to document learning, engage my students in the assessment process (I am talking 5 and 6 year olds by the way) and build reciprocal and meaningful relationships with my parents. That being said, the concept of portfolios is far from new and in my opinion not innovative. For me, portfolios are like a wonderfully balanced red wine with full flavour and deep notes. Not the cheap stuff dressed up but a good wine that stands the test of time. Perhaps digital portfolio’s have the potential to be culmination of good wine and good bottles? Quality assessment practices supported by research meets transformational technology?
I use the word potential intentionally as the use of digital portfolios, like all technology is simply a tool. FreshGrade, Quio, OneNote or any of the other options for digital portfolios do not transform learning. Teachers transform learning alongside their students. Although the Surrey School District has chosen FreshGrade as our tool this is simply the bottle, the shell. The good stuff that will really make a difference for our learners is inside. For teachers embracing the shift from reporting as an event to the ongoing communication of learning with digital portfolios I hope you find time to consider what we already know. Back to the wine metaphor for just a moment. Just as good wine gets better with time we should not be approaching digital portfolios as some new phenomenon but building on the good work that has already been done. Although some of this research may seem old and not reference the technology we use today, much of it is still good and relevant, so why would we throw it away and start from scratch?
For example, I found an article published almost 20 years ago to be incredibly relevant to the discourse of digital portfolios today. In Portfolios: Assumptions, tensions, and possibilities Tierney (1998) discusses the potential for collections of student work in ‘learner-centered portfolios’ as a vehicle to transform the practices and goals of assessment. This is long before the advent of mobile tablets where teachers (and students) could quickly snap a picture, take a video or record an observation with ease and have it uploaded to a student portfolio immediately. Before wifi was commonplace in schools and parents could have a virtual window into the classroom through blogs, portfolios and websites. Yet the possibilities for student engagement, meaningful descriptions of the learning as a process and the potential for teachers to use assessment to move learning forward remains the same. Why are we still talking about the fallacy that standardized tests, comparative assessments and weighted grades measure learning? Perhaps because some of the limitations with paper based portfolios left educators with few other options?
As we work towards the implementation of digital portfolios in our school district the same questions and concerns exist as with paper portfolios. What does a learner-centered portfolio include? In the early 1990’s portfolio-based writing assessment attracted the attention of several literacy scholars including Kathleen Yancey and Rick Stiggins. Much like the discussions I have with teachers today around the shift from reporting to communicating student learning, Stiggins (1994) describes portfolios as a collection of learning rather than an assessment of the learner. Yancey (1992) defines a “portfolio pedagogy” where reflection and inquiry are foundational concepts to help teachers avoid the creation of a scrapbook. Her concerns align with the thoughts in a post by my colleague and friend Kelli Vogstad titled Digital Portfolios: Moving beyond the Glorified Scrapbook. When I review the big ideas with paper based portfolios as described by researchers such as Tierney, Stiggins and Yancey the foundation is the same for digital portfolios: learner-centered (even our youngest students should have choice & voice), reflective, inquiry based, formative, quality over quantity and designed to make learning visible (the process and connections, not the product).
Here are a few quotes that resonate for me from Tierney’s article (1998).
Learner-centered portfolios are:
- a movement from summative to formative
- sites for reflection and inquiry
- a way to capture the unique patterns of learning by individuals
- an opportunity for teachers to assume role of participant-observer
- sites for growth in self-assessment (for teacher and student?)
- an opportunity for teachers to use professional experience to guide learning
- sites for collaboration designed to support students, teachers and caregivers as they engage in conversations around curriculum and development
- a place of exploration where students try out, try on, and test possibilities of who they are and who they might become
This aligns with my views of a quality digital portfolio. I believe this is the good wine that we can showcase in a new bottle. I am curious to know what other teachers using digital portfolios would add to the list above? What do you consider when designing and building your portfolios? What role do parents and students play? I believe we need to continually ask ourselves these questions to avoid a collection of work, much like the bursting pages of a paper folder, at the expense of an excellent opportunity to build on existing research and make a profound difference for our students.
For teachers using digital portfolios I invite you to consider the 13 principals suggested by Tierney (1998) in Literacy assessment reform: shifting beliefs, principled possibilities and emerging practices and how they might be reflected in your practice.
- Assessments should emerge from the classroom rather than be imposed upon it.
- Effective testing requires teacher professionalism with teachers as learners.
- Assessment practices should be client centred and reciprocal.
- Assessment should be done judiciously, with teachers as advocates for students and ensuring their due process.
- Assessment extends beyond improving our tests to the purposes of assessment and how results from assessment are used, reported, contextualized, and perceived.
- Diversity should be embraced, not slighted.
- Assessment procedures may need to be non-standaridized to be fair to the individual.
- Simple-minded summaries, scores, and comparisons should be displaced with approaches that acknowledge the complex and idiosyncratic nature of literacy development. Straightforward comparisons across individuals are usually arbitrary, biased, and narrow.
- Some things that can be assessed reliably across raters are not worth assessing; some things that are worth assessing may be difficult to assess reliably except by the same rater
- Assessment should be more developmental and sustained than piecemeal and shortsighted
- Most interpretations of results are not straightforward. Assessment should be viewed as ongoing and suggestive, rather than fixed or definitive.
- Learning possibilities should be negotiated with the students and stakeholders rather than imposed via standards and assessment that are preset, prescribed, or mandated.
- Assessment should be assessed in terms of its relationship with teaching and learning, including the opportunities learners are offered and the rights and respect they are accorded.
“Assessment practices should enrich teaching and learning” Tierney 1998
Suggestions moving forward?
Stiggins, R. J. (1994). Student-centered classroom assessment. New York: Merrill.
Tierney, R. J., Clark, C., Fenner, L., Herter, R. J., Simpson, C. S., & Wiser, B. (1998). Portfolios: Assumptions, tensions, and possibilities. Reading Research Quarterly, 33(4), 474-486.
Tierney, R. J. (1998). Literacy assessment reform: Shifting beliefs, principled possibilities, and emerging practices. The Reading Teacher, 51(5), 374.
Yancey, K. B. (1992). Portfolios in the writing classroom. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.